CHILDHOOD VACCINATIONS

Infants should be fully immunized during the first year of life against the nine killer diseases mentioned below:

1. Diphtheria
2. Pertussis (Whooping Cough)
3. Tetanus
4. Measles
5. Poliomyelitis
6. Tuberculosis
7. Hepatitis B
8. HIB (Haemophillus Influenzae B)
9. Pneumococcal Conjugate B

Women of childbearing age and pregnant women should be protected against Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus, by immunization with Tetanus Toxoid (TT) vaccine (see Tetanus Vaccination For Women section below).
 

Brief History of Childhood Vaccinations in Pakistan

1978: The Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) was launched in Pakistan to protect children against:

  • Diphtheria
  • Pertussis (Whooping Cough)
  • Tetanus
  • Measles
  • Poliomyelitis (Polio)
  • Tuberculosis

 
2002: Hepatitis B (Hep B) vaccine was added to the EPI list

2006: A vaccine combining Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus (DPT), and Hepatitis B (Hep B) was introduced

2008: A pentavalent vaccine was introduced which combined DPT, Hep B, and the HIB vaccine to cover Haemophilus Influenzae B

2013: Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (to safeguard against pneumonia and meningitis) was added to the existing list of eight vaccines

Over the years the number of injections has been reduced by combining multiple vaccines into one vaccine. Since 2013, vaccines are administered to children in Sindh according to the schedule below::

1st Injection(Soon after birth) — BCG + OPV 0
2nd Injection (6 weeks) — Pentavalent 1 + OPV 1 + Pneumococcol 1
3rd Injection (10 weeks) — Pentavalent 1 + OPV 1 + Pneumococcol 2
4th Injection (14 weeks) — Pentavalent 1 + OPV 1 + Pneumococcol 3
5th Injection (9 months or later) — Measles 1
6th Injection (15 months or later) –Measles 2
 

TETANUS VACCINATION FOR WOMEN

Women of childbearing age and pregnant women should be protected against maternal and neonatal tetanus, by immunization with Tetanus Toxoid (TT) vaccine.
 
Schedule of Immunization for Tetanus for Women of Childbearing Age and Pregnant Women

  • At first contact — TT 1
  • 4 weeks after TT 1 — TT 2
  • 6 months after TT2 — TT 3
  • 1 year after TT 3 — TT 4
  • 1 year after TT 4 — TT 5

 

FLU (INFLUENZA) VACCINATION

The influenza virus evolves its structure constantly, therefore a new strain appears every year. Since vaccines are produced against the viruses of the previous seasons, it provides protection against those viruses, although the reaction to a new strain is not so severe as it would be in an un-vaccinated person.
 

Schedule of Flu Vaccination

  • Vaccination should be taken preferably before the flu season begins (in October)
  • Vaccination should not be taken after the end of flu season ends (in March)
  • Vaccination is valid for one season only, that is, 6 to 12 months
  • Protection is achieved within 2 to 3 weeks

 

Special Instructions

  • As with all other vaccines, it should be delayed in subjects suffering from severe acute febrile illness
  • Can be administered during minor illnesses with or without fever
  • Can be administered simultaneously with other vaccines

 

Pregnancy and Lactation

  • As with all inactivated vaccines, the risk to the fetus are negligible so there is no contraindication during pregnancy. However, vaccination should be used only when clearly needed
  • No known contraindication during lactation period

 

HEPATITIS B VACCINATION

Three different flexible schedules are available for immunization against Hepatitis B, depending on the needs of the subjects.
 
Recent reviews, and the latest scientific data on immune memory and its clinical implications, have concluded that routine booster vaccinations for Hepatitis B are not necessary.
 
1. STANDARD SCHEDULE – This provides the highest HBs Antibody titres after three doses. The schedule involves injections at the following times: 0, 1 and 6 months
2. QUICK PROTECTION SCHEDULE – Recommended for high-risk persons (like doctors, dentists, nurses and clinical laboratory workers) who require quick protection, at the following times: 0, 1, 2 and 12 months
3. RAPID PROTECTION SCHEDULE – This schedule is recommended for people who require a rapid protection from the disease such as travelers, at the following times:0, 7, 21 Days and 12 months

 
Updated: September, 2018
 
All information has been presented for better understanding and general information purposes only.Maximum care has been taken for its authenticity, however it should not be considered as comprehensive or complete. The information provided is not intended as a means of diagnosing a health problem or determining treatment. Therefore, it is not meant as a substitute for the advice provided by your doctor.